Authorized 28 July 1866 by Section III of an "Act to Increase and Fix the Military Peace Establishment of the United States". Also created the 7th, 8th and 9th Regiments of Cavalry. The 9-10th were to be composed of colored enlisted men. Assigned to the Military Division of the Mississippi under Sherman. 30 Sept 66 Colonel Benjamen H. Grierson arrived at Fort Leavenworth, KA to organize regiment. Grierson had fewer potential recruits in Kansas causing him to go the big cities on the East coast in his search for troopers. In addition there was conflict at Fort Leavenworth, with the commanding officers, poor equipments and broken down horses. Co A organized 18 February 1867. Discrimination and disease forced regiment into the field after the formation of Co C. Co D was formed at Fort Gibson, Indian Territory. From 1 June 1867 through Co H on 21 July. Regimental HQ moved to Ft Riley, KA, 6 Aug. having formed 8 companies. The remainder of the companies (4) were organized while at Riley.
Inactivated 20 March 1944 in North Africa
Redesignated 20 October 1950 as the 510th Tank Battalion [Negro]
Activated 17 November 1950 at Fort Polk, Louisiana
Ordered integrated December 1952
The regiment gradually moved from the plains into northern Texas over the next 7 years. Numerous engagements, notably rescue of Forsyth's beleaugered scouts at Beecher Islands in eastern Colo 1868 and with Carr (5th Cav) as escort at Beaver Creek. Built Fort Sill.
Transfered to Department of Texas 1873, did much exploration surveys, and some engagements including the Victorio Campaign. Joined by the first black grad of West Point Henry Ossian Flipper [Co A] in 1879 and was court-martialed 1882. Also highlighted by several clashes with the Texas Rangers.
Transferred to Dept of Arizona in 1885 where they participated in Geronimo Campaign. Grierson transferred to Dept of Arizona command in 1888 after 22 years with the 10th
Transferred to Fort Custer, Montana, Dept of Dakota in 1891 under Col J. K. Mizner arriving in the midst of a blizzard, after he complained about the regiment's length of service in the southwest.
During the Spanish American War the regiment saw action in Cuba, El Caney and San Juan among others. Elements were subsequently transferred to the Philippines until 1902. Remained at Fort Robinson, Nebraska until 1907 then sent back to Manilla. The regiment then past rothrough Fort Ethan Allen, Vermont 1910-1913 on their way to Fort Huachucha, AZ. Developed concepts of indirect machine gun fire.
Participated in Punitive Expedition 1916.
Ben Grierson: 1st Regimental commander
Guy V. Henry: Regimental commander, also with 9th at Drexel Mission (Wounded Knee action)
John J. Pershing: Lt
John Davidson: Lt.
Henry O. Flipper: 1st black graduate of West Point
Charles Young: 3rd black graduate of West Point, saw action in Spanish American War and the Punitive Expedition. Advanced to be Colonel. He was denied combat command in WWII. To show his fitness, he rode a horse from Xavier, OH to Washington DC. Still denied command of combat troops.
Kansas: Fts Leavenworth, Riley, Hayes, Harker, Wallace
Indian Territory: Fts Sill, Gibson, Dodge, and Camps Supply, Grierson, Wichita
Texas: Fts Concho, Griffin, Richarson, McKavett, Davis, Stockton
Arizona: Fts Apache, Verde, Grant, Huachuca and Whipple Barracks
Montana: Fts Custer, Assinniboine, Keogh
New Mexico: Ft Bayard
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